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He refused to invade Cuba both during the Bay of Pigs and during the Cuban Missile Crisis; he pared back the CIA by signing National Security Action Memorandums 55, 56, and 57, making the Joint Chiefs of Staff directly responsible to the President for all Cold War Operations— effectively pulling the CIAʼs teeth; he directed the federal government to intervene in States where the Civil Rights of minorities were most egregiously being violated; he signed Executive Order 11110 extricating the United States from the death grip of debt imposed by the Federal Reserve thus allowing money to be printed directly by the Treasury Department...interest free; he took a giant leap toward peace during his speech at the American University where, for the first time, Americans were challenged—not to view the Soviets as a threat -- but rather to see the Russians as a People. On October 11, 1963 JFK solidified his commitment to peace by signing National Security Action Memorandum 263, ordering all personnel out of Vietnam by the end of 1965; and finally, his determination to explore pursuits of mutual benefit to both the United States and the Soviet Union is displayed in National Security Action Memorandum 271, of November 12, 1963 in which JFK instructs NASA to cooperate with the Soviet Union in outer space matters and joint lunar landing programs.
Ten days later the enemies of peace acted against him and the winds of war prevailed.